conjugation for the Spanish verb estar

“Estar” in Spanish translates to “to be” in English. However, it is important to note that Spanish has two verbs for “to be”: “ser” and “estar.” While “ser” is used for more permanent or intrinsic qualities, “estar” is used for temporary states, locations, feelings, and conditions.

Conjugation for the Spanish verb “estar” (to be) in the main tenses

Present Indicative

  • Yo estoy (I am)
  • Tú estás (You are)
  • Él/Ella/Usted está (He/She/You are)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estamos (We are)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estáis (You all are – informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes están (They/You all are)

Preterite (Past Simple) Indicative

  • Yo estuve (I was)
  • Tú estuviste (You were)
  • Él/Ella/Usted estuvo (He/She/You were)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estuvimos (We were)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estuvisteis (You all were – informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estuvieron (They/You all were)

Imperfect Indicative

  • Yo estaba (I used to be)
  • Tú estabas (You used to be)
  • Él/Ella/Usted estaba (He/She/You used to be)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estábamos (We used to be)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estabais (You all used to be – informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estaban (They/You all used to be)

Future Indicative

  • Yo estaré (I will be)
  • Tú estarás (You will be)
  • Él/Ella/Usted estará (He/She/You will be)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estaremos (We will be)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estaréis (You all will be – informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estarán (They/You all will be)


  • Yo estaría (I would be)
  • Tú estarías (You would be)
  • Él/Ella/Usted estaría (He/She/You would be)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estaríamos (We would be)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estaríais (You all would be – informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estarían (They/You all would be)

Present Subjunctive

  • Yo esté (That I be)
  • Tú estés (That you be)
  • Él/Ella/Usted esté (That he/she be)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estemos (That we be)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estéis (That you all be – informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estén (That they/you all be)

Imperfect Subjunctive

  • Yo estuviera (If I were)
  • Tú estuvieras (If you were)
  • Él/Ella/Usted estuviera (If he/she were)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estuviéramos (If we were)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estuvierais (If you all were – informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estuvieran (If they/you all were)


  • Tú está (Be – singular, informal)
  • Él/Ella/Usted esté (Be – singular, formal)
  • Nosotros/Nosotras estemos (Let’s be)
  • Vosotros/Vosotras estad (Be – plural, informal, used in Spain)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estén (Be – plural, formal)

The importance of mastering spanish verb “Estar”

The importance of “estar” lies in its ability to convey a sense of transience and changeability. It allows speakers to express temporary states of being, such as emotions, physical conditions, or locations. For example:

  • Location: “Estoy en casa” (I am at home) – This indicates a temporary location.
  • Emotion: “Estoy feliz” (I am happy) – This expresses a temporary emotional state.
  • Condition: “Estoy cansado” (I am tired) – This reflects a temporary physical condition.

“Ser” and “estar” can sometimes be used interchangeably, but choosing the correct verb is crucial for conveying the right meaning. Understanding when to use “estar” is essential for effective communication in Spanish, as it allows for a more nuanced and precise expression of states and conditions. This distinction is a fundamental aspect of Spanish grammar and language structure.